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Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for the detection of bluetongue virus

In recent years, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) has become one of the most widely used methods for the diagnosis of infectious pathogens. The combined properties of high sensitivity, specificity, and speed, along with a low contamination risk, have made real-time PCR technology a highly attractive alternative to more conventional diagnostic methods. Numerous robust rRT-PCR systems have been developed and validated for important epizootic diseases of livestock, and in this chapter we describe an rRT-PCR protocol for the detection of bluetongue virus.

Bluetongue virus revisited

Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne viral disease of ruminants that causes high socio-economic and sanitary consequences. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a member of the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae and so far 26 serotypes have been described. The disease has been known to the South African sheep farmers since at least the early years of the 19th century. From this date, more than 2000 articles have been published about BTV and around 800 of them have appeared in the last ten years.

Immunisation with bacterial expressed VP2 and VP5 of bluetongue virus (BTV) protect alpha/beta interferon-receptor knock-out (IFNAR) mice from homologous lethal challenge

BTV-4 structural proteins VP2 (as two domains: VP2D1 and VP2D2), VP5 (lacking the first 100 amino acids: VP5Δ1–100) and full-length VP7, expressed in bacteria as soluble glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion-proteins, were used to immunise Balb/c and α/β interferon receptor knock-out (IFNAR−/−) mice. Neutralising antibody (NAbs) titres (expressed as log10 of the reciprocal of the last dilution of mouse serum which reduced plaque number by ≥50%) induced by the VP2 domains ranged from 1.806 to 2.408 in Balb/c and IFNAR−/− mice.

Bluetongue - Europe (15): southeast Europe, serotype 4, genotype

Published Date: 2014-09-05 17:55:04
Subject: PRO/AH> Bluetongue - Europe (15): southeast Europe, st 4, genotype
Archive Number: 20140905.2752260

Full-Genome Characterisation of Orungo, Lebombo and Changuinola Viruses Provides Evidence for Co-Evolution of Orbiviruses with Their Arthropod Vectors

The complete genomes of Orungo virus (ORUV), Lebombo virus (LEBV) and Changuinola virus (CGLV) were sequenced, confirming that they each encode 11 distinct proteins (VP1-VP7 and NS1-NS4). Phylogenetic analyses of cell-attachment protein ‘outer-capsid protein 1′ (OC1), show that orbiviruses fall into three large groups, identified as: VP2(OC1), in which OC1 is the 2nd largest protein, including the Culicoides transmitted orbiviruses; VP3(OC1), which includes the mosquito transmitted orbiviruses; and VP4(OC1) which includes the tick transmitted viruses.

Virus and Host Factors Affecting the Clinical Outcome of Bluetongue Virus Infection

Bluetongue is a major infectious disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), an arbovirus transmitted by Culicoides. Here, we assessed virus and host factors influencing the clinical outcome of BTV infection using a single experimental framework. We investigated how mammalian host species, breed, age, BTV serotypes, and strains within a serotype affect the clinical course of bluetongue.

Evidence for Transmission of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 26 through Direct Contact

The aim of this study was to assess the mechanisms of transmission of bluetongue virus serotype 26 (BTV-26) in goats. A previous study, which investigated the pathogenicity and infection kinetics of BTV-26 in goats, unexpectedly revealed that one control goat may have been infected through a direct contact transmission route.


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