Published Date: 2017-12-07 17:17:30
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Bluetongue - Israel (02): 2017, ovine, bovine, st 2, 3, 4
Archive Number: 20171207.5489651
BLUETONGUE - ISRAEL (02): 2017, OVINE, BOVINE, SEROTYPES 2, 3, 4
A ProMED-mail post http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases http://www.isid.org
In this post:
 BTV-3, sheep, south Israel, recurrence, 2017
 BTV serotypes 2, 3, 4 in Israel, 2017
Date: Thu 7 Dec 2017
From: Gaby Kenigswald <Kenigswald@hak.org.il> [edited]
Re: Bluetongue - Europe (10): Italy (SC) ovine, st. 3, new strain, OIE, RFI, 20171204.5482645
The same serotype, namely BTV-3, has been identified recently in a sheep farm at Moshav Lachish [map at https://tinyurl.com/y7zulqkd]. The disease was seen in a group of 450 lambs aged 4-12 months, of which about 100 (22 percent) showed clinical signs, and 10 died (10 percent fatality rate).
Clinical signs were significantly different from those caused by BTV serotypes 8, 4 and 24 in sheep. The disease was initially manifested by elevated body temperature, followed by lameness and stiffness in leg and back muscles. Other clinical signs, usually expected in BT-affected susceptible sheep, such as subcutaneous haemorrhages, respiratory distress, facial edema etc, were not seen.
The main economic loss, on top of the mortality, was due to retarded weight gain of the lambs.
It has been speculated that the restriction of the disease to young animals might be attributed to undetected exposure of this flock to the same virus strain during the previous year. BTV-3 was recorded in Israel for the 1st time last year, 2016, when 3 outbreaks were reported, similarly in the southern (HaDarom) district. The disease affected housed sheep flocks in the villages Moshav Tekuma and Moshav Pri-Gan, and a grazing flock in Nahal Grar near the Magen junction. However those outbreaks were characterised by the classical clinical signs of bluetongue in ovines.
I wish to extend my gratitude to the virology department in the Kimron Veternary Institute (Evgeny Khinich, Velizar Bombarov and Natalia Golander) for their excellent diagnostic support.
"Hachaklait" Veterinary Services
Mutual Society for Clinical Veterinary Services and Livestock Insurance
Date: Thu 7 Dec 2017
From: Evgeny Khinich <firstname.lastname@example.org> [edited]
In response to today's [7 Dec 2017] ProMED's e-mailed request, we hereby provide the list of BTV outbreaks in Israel during 2017, as diagnosed by the Kimron Veterinary Institute (KVI), Veterinary Services & Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture:
Date / animal species / location / district / serotype
July 2017 / sheep / Ramot Naftali / HaZafon (North) / 4 [see comment]
5 Sep 2017 / sheep / Yavneel / HaZafon (North) / 4
11 Sep 2017 / sheep / Neot Golan / HaZafon (North) / 4
24 Sep 2017 / sheep / Dekkel / sheep / HaDarom (South) / 4
24 Sep 2017 / Bet Haemeq / cattle / HaZafon (North) / 4
24 Sep 2017 / Beer Sheva / sheep / HaDarom (South) / 4
9 Aug 2017 / Afikim / cattle / Hazafon (North) / 2
10 Sep 2017 / Sde David / sheep / HaDarom (South) / 3
1 Sep 2017 / Lachish / sheep / HaDarom (South) / 3
Evgeny Khinich and Velizar Bombarov
Division of Virology
Kimron Veterinary Institute
Bet Dagan, Israel
[The outbreak in Ramot Naftali (Upper Galilee, on the Lebanese border) involved a flock of "Jacob's sheep" breed, imported several months earlier from Canada. This severe outbreak was addressed in posting 20170726.5204248 (erroneously reported from the Jerusalem area). At that time, the causative agent's serotype was not yet known and a RFI was submitted. As noted now, the Jacob's sheep were victims of BTV-4, known to be the most prevalent BT serotype in Israel since the middle of the 20th C, notorious as highly pathogenic in susceptible sheep.
During 2016, Israel reported to the OIE 29 BT outbreaks, most of them caused by BTV serotype 8; others by serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 15. The seasonal occurrence of the disease started, typically, in July, peaked in September and subsided during November.
The appearance of BTV-3 in Sep 2016 was, in fact, its premiere in Israel. During the same season, a strain of the same serotype appeared for the 1st time in Tunisia. Recently, BTV-3 was reported for the 1st time in Sicily, probably transmitted by wind-borne culicoides midges from North Africa. It will be interesting to obtain genotyping results of the virus strains from the 3 affected countries. Information on the clinical signs observed in Sicily, requested in 20171204.548264, is still anticipated. - Mod.AS