Published Date: 2016-10-17 12:51:04
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Bluetongue - Europe (23): France, bovine, ovine, st 8, spread
Archive Number: 20161017.4564737
BLUETONGUE - EUROPE (23): FRANCE, BOVINE, OVINE, SEROTYPE 8, SPREAD
A ProMED-mail post http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases http://www.isid.org
Date: Fri 15 Oct 2016 9:00 AM IST
Source: Agriland (Ireland) [edited]
There has been a total of 98 new outbreaks of the bluetongue disease reported in France in recent weeks, according to a report from the World Animal Health Organisation (OIE).
This brings the total number of outbreaks up to 478, with most of the recent outbreaks reporting cases of between one and 8 animals in herd varying in size between 9 314 animals.
In total there was 10 537 cattle susceptible to the disease, while just 164 cases of bluetongue were confirmed, OIE reports show.
Meanwhile, there was also an outbreak of the disease reported in a flock of 13 sheep with 2 cases being confirmed.
All of the cases were detected as part of active surveillance and as part of pre-movement testing, while none of the infected animals died from the disease or had to be destroyed/slaughtered because of it, the report shows.
Bluetongue is a viral disease which affects ruminant animals, but humans aren't affected, nor are animal products or meat.
The reported outbreaks of the disease occurred mainly in the centre of France, with the Allier, Puy-De-Dome, and Loire regions of the country most affected.
The extent of the restriction zone in France has not changed as a result of these cases and has been the same since April 2016.
Clinical signs of the disease
1. In cattle (the main carriers of bluetongue). Infected cattle generally not showing any signs of the disease, but occasionally signs can include: swelling and ulcers in the mouth; nasal discharge; red skin and eyes as a result of blood collecting beneath the surface; swollen teats; tiredness.
2. In sheep. The main signs of bluetongue are: ulcers in the mouth; discharge of mucus and drooling from mouth and nose; swelling of the mouth, head and neck, and the coronary band (where the skin of the leg meets the horn of the foot); red skin as a result of blood collecting beneath the surface; fever; lameness; breathing problems.
[Byline: Conor Finnerty]
[An EU bluetongue map, presenting the various BTV restriction zones in Europe, updated 3 Oct 2016, is available at http://ec.europa.eu/food/animals/docs/ad_control-measures_bt_restrictedz.... The map shows the BTV serotypes circulating in each restricted zone which permits, for the purposes of EC regulation 1266/2007, the identification of the restricted zones demarcated in different Member States where the same BTV serotypes are circulating. Trade between similar zones is allowed. As can be seen in the map, most of France is coloured pink, which represents BTV-8; the only zone remaining white stretches along France's northern shores.
Until recently, the only other zones in Europe in which BTV-8 has been considered continuing its circulation (and signed as such on the EU map) were Sardinia and South-West Italy. This virus was signified by its increased pathogenicity to cattle (though milder than in sheep) and by its potential to spread by intra-uterine infected bovine embryos. A killed vaccine against this virus has become widely applied in Europe.
Since 19 Sep 2016, BTV-8 has been reported to be spreading in Cyprus (this event is not yet incorporated into the EU restriction zones map). Cyprus most recent OIE follow-up report (no. 7, 14 Oct 2016), reporting 17 new outbreaks, is available at http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_ref....
BTV-8 is also known to be currently circulating in northern Israel. This may be related to the Cyprus event, reflecting a regional circulation of the virus by airborne culicoids, and is likely to incorporate additional territories in the Eastern Mediterranean, such as (southern) Turkey, Lebanon, and Syria, prescribing enhanced monitoring activities (see commentary and references in ProMED-mail posting 20160930.4528154). Genetic comparison of the BTV-8 strains from France, Cyprus, and Israel may shed more light on the epidemiology of this emerging virus.
BTV-8 started its performance internationally in 2006, when discovered in Belgium (ProMED-mail posting 20060819.2316), followed by the Netherlands, Germany, and -- somewhat later -- France and other European countries, becoming subject to detailed EU legislative measures. The disease was eventually controlled by compulsory mass vaccinations and other control measures, but remained circulating in France with a recent upsurge as described in the report above.
The origin and route of BTV-8 initial introduction into north west Europe have been subject to investigations (1,2), leading to the conclusion that it originated in sub-Saharan Africa and was not a vaccine strain. Its exact source and the route of introduction remain to be clarified.
1. Maan S, Maan NS, Ross-smith N, et al: Sequence analysis of bluetongue virus serotype 8 from the Netherlands 2006 and comparison to other European strains. Virology 2008; 377(2): 308-18. http://tinyurl.com/zg3dhny.
2. Mintiens K, Méroc E, Mellor PS, et al: Possible routes of introduction of bluetongue virus serotype 8 into the epicentre of the 2006 epidemic in north-western Europe. Prev Vet Med. 2008; 87(1-2): 131-44. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2008.06.011 (Special Issue "The 2006 Bluetongue outbreak in North-West Europe"); abstract available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167587708001281. - Mod.AS
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/100.]